A total of 1232 pediatric thoracic surgery patients were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Ondokuz Mayrs University Faculty of Medicine in the period of January 1979 to June 1996. We performed surgical procedure to 1,019 cases because of surgical thoracic pathology. The pathologies, treatment modalities and results were evaluated. The major patient groups consist of the group of Esophagus-Mediastinum (58.3%) and Lung-Pleura (32.5%). When cases are evaluated in terms of mortality following surgery, ratio of all pediatric thoracic surgery cases was found to be 4.1%. In accordance with the increasing number of patients and the developments in recent years, it was observed that the number and kind of surgery, and also the number of incoming patients and treated patients suffering thoracic pathologies were increasing over the years. As a conclusion, thoracic surgery was believed to be one of the most important area of pediatric surgery.