Evaluation of lingual frenulum using geometric morphometrics Evaluación del frenillo lingual utilizando morfometría geométrica

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Kacar D., Cakmak F., Dogan A., Sevinc O., Barut C.

International Journal of Morphology, vol.29, no.2, pp.313-317, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.4067/s0717-95022011000200001
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Morphology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.313-317
  • Keywords: Geometric morphometrics, Lingual frenulum, Men, Reference points, Women
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: No


A fold of tissue, the lingual frenulum, extends onto the inferior surface of the tongue from near the base of the tongue on midline. The shape, length and alignment of lingual frenulum vary between individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate morphology of lingual frenulum with respect to gender. Ninety seven volunteers who were students and employees of Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine participated in the study. Two individuals with a history of hepatitis and 20 individuals with inadequate photographs were excluded from the study. Morphometric analyses were performed on the photographs of 75 volunteers (36 men, 39 women). Lingual frenulum photograph of each individual was taken using standard photographic techniques. The individual opened his/her mouth as much as possible with the tongue in contact with the interior surface of the two middle incisors. The morphology of the lingual frenulum was evaluated with linear measurements and geometric morphometrics methods. The length of lingual frenulum between the attachments of it, to the floor of the mouth and the inferior surface of the tongue were measured using Digimizer software. Four reference points determined previously were marked by tpsDig2 software on photographs. This process was repeated for each sample to create a txt file containing reference points of 75 individuals. Statistical analysis of txt files were carried out using Morpheus software. There were no statistically significant differences between the linear measurements of lingual frenulum according to gender (p>0.05). Lingual frenulum had no gender differences according to geometric morphometrics analysis as well (p>0.05). It can be suggested that lingual frenulum had similar architecture in both sexes.