Estimation of the water footprint of kiwifruit: in the areas transferred from hazelnut to kiwi

Bilge Ozturk G., Kavlak M. O., Cabuk S. N., Cabuk A., Çetin M.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.29, no.48, pp.73171-73180, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 48
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-022-21050-y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.73171-73180
  • Keywords: GIS, Hazelnut, Kiwi, Water scarcity, Water footprint (WF), GREEN, BLUE, AGRICULTURE, CONSUMPTION, MANAGEMENT, PRODUCTS, IMPACT, CROPS
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater and plays a critical role in addressing global water scarcity. While numerous studies have focused on the water footprint (WF) of various agricultural products, little attention has been paid to changing cropping patterns and their impact on WF. Here, we investigate the impact of conversion from hazelnut fields to kiwi orchards on green, blue, and gray WF between 2010 and 2021 in Ordu, Turkey. Our results show a total increase of 803,901 tons WF for all green, blue, and gray WF. Compared to the previous situation, changing the agricultural product and growing kiwifruit on previously established hazelnut fields increases green WF by 372,106 tons and blue WF by 334,167 tons. Thus, the change of cultivation pattern could significantly contribute to the water scarcity in the area, and at the same time, the increase in WF. Although kiwi cultivation might be advantageous economically, this economic benefit might be an ecological disadvantage as kiwi production is highly dependent on limited blue water resources. Therefore, it is suggested to further promote the rain-fed product, the hazelnut.