Polymyxa graminis is the vector of several important viruses, including Soilborne cereal mosaic virus, Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, Barley yellow mosaic virus and Barley mild mosaic virus, of winter cereals worldwide. Surveys were carried out to detect these viruses and their vector P. graminis in 300 soil samples from the main wheat and barley production areas of the Anatolian part of Turkey collected in May 2002, June 2004 and May 2005. For these surveys, various susceptible wheat and barley cultivars were pot grown in the collected soil samples in a greenhouse and then analysed using ELISA and RT-PCR to detect the presence of different virus species. In addition, a combination of light microscopy following roots staining with acid fuchsin and PCR was used for detection of P. graminis. All soil samples analysed were found to be free of these soilborne viruses and their vector.