Beekeeping is an important agricultural and commercial activity globally practiced. Honey bee is attacked by certain infectious pathogens. Most important brood diseases are bacterial including American Foulbrood (AFB), caused by Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), and European Foulbrood (EFB) by Melissococcus plutonius (M. plutonius) in addition of secondary invaders, e.g. Paenibacillus alvei (P. alvei) and Paenibacillus dendritiformis (P. dendritiformis). These bacteria cause the death of larvae in honey bee colonies. In this work, antibacterial activities of extracts, fractions, and isolated certain compounds (nominated 1-3) all originated from moss, Dicranum polysetum Sw. ( D. polysetum), were tested against some honey bee bacterial pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, and sporicidal values of methanol extract, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane fractions ranged between 10.4 and 18.98, 83.4-303.75 & 5.86-18.98 mu g/mL against P. larvae, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate sub-fractions (fraction) and the isolated compounds (1-3) were tested against AFB- and EFB-causing bacteria. Bio-guided chromatographic separation of ethyl acetate fraction, a crude methanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of D. polysetum resulted in three natural compounds: a novel one, i.e. glycer-2-yl hexadeca-4-yne-7Z,10Z,13Z-trienoate (1, dicrapolysetoate; given as trivial name), in addition to two known triterpenoids poriferasterol (2), and gamma-taraxasterol (3). Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges were 1.4-60.75, 8.12-65.0, 2.09-33.44 & 1.8-28.75 mu g/mL for sub-fractions, compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively.