This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of different graft materials using induced membrane technique for reconstruction of mandibular segmental bone defects. New Zealand rabbits were used as the experimental animal. As first-stage surgical procedure, segmental bone defects were created at the lower border of the mandibula in all groups. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement was inserted into the defects. After 6 weeks, PMMA cement was removed in all groups. In the Control group, defect areas were left empty. Defects were filled with autogenous graft in the Autograft group, xenograft in the Xenograft group, and a mixture of autogenous graft and xenograft in the Autograft + Xenograft group. Histopathological, stereological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. A total of 40 New Zealand rabbits were used. Rabbits were randomly divided into four subgroups as Control, Autograft, Xenograft and Autograft + Xenograft groups (n = 10). When the groups were compared in terms of newly formed bone tissue volumes, significant difference was found between the Control group and Autograft group, Xenograft group and Autograft + Xenograft group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.003). The results of immunohistochemical examination were consistent with this finding. Stereological and immunohistochemical results can be used as a justification to adopt the induced membrane technique on an experimental basis in humans when it comes to the reconstruction of small segmental mandibular defects. (c) 2021 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.