From the aerial parts of Stachys byzanthina C. Koch., a new flavone glycoside, was isolated for the first time in addition to known two flavone glycosides. Structures were established by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral analysis. Antiproliferative activities of isolated compounds, crude extract and fractions, fatty acids (extracts of hexane and hexane:ethyl acetate, 9:1) of aerial parts of S. byzantina were investigated against Vero (African green monkey kidney), HeLa (human uterus carcinoma) and C6 (rat brain tumor) cells in vitro and compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Antiproliferative effect of the extract, isolated flavonoids and fatty acids were tested at 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL using BrdU cell proliferation ELISA. Crown Copyright © 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.