Pathways to Inclusion: Exploring Early Childhood School Administrators’ Attitudes towards Including Children with Disabilities in Türkiye

Rakap S.

European Journal of Special Needs Education, 2023 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/08856257.2023.2227529
  • Journal Name: European Journal of Special Needs Education
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, FRANCIS, Periodicals Index Online, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Index Islamicus, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: administrator, attitude, beliefs, early childhood, Inclusion, values
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Inclusion has been recognised as an educational practice to support development and learning of children with disabilities in general education settings in Türkiye since 1980s. Numerous studies have examined the attitudes of various stakeholder towards inclusive education. However, there is limited research examining early childhood school administrators’ attitudes towards inclusion. The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes of Turkish early childhood school administrators towards inclusion of young children with disabilities and factors that may impact their attitudes. A total of 267 school administrators completed an online questionnaire. Findings showed that early childhood school administrators possess moderately positive attitude towards inclusion of young children with disabilities in their schools. Variables including gender, education, administrative role and location of school predicted administrators’ attitudes; female administrators, those with a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education, principals rather than assistant principals; and those who worked in urban schools had more favourable attitudes. Moreover, early childhood school administrators’ attitudes towards inclusion were found to be closely related to their values in relation to diversity and equity, beliefs regarding parental, community and system-level support for inclusion and previous positive inclusive experiences, professional development and training on inclusion and leadership skills. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.